E-ISSN: 2791-8823
Volume: 3  Issue: 1 - April 2023

Page I

Merih Çetinkaya
Page II

3.Long-COVID, is a New Syndrome?
Özlem Alıcı
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2022.2022-11-2  Pages 1 - 5
The ongoing or developing new symptoms after acute coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection has emerged as a new clinical problem. This has become a problem facing the globally infected population and health systems. “Long-COVID” can be defined as patients with laboratory-confirmed or clinically present COVID-19 whose symptoms persist for four weeks after diagnosis. Symptoms are remarkably heterogeneous, as seen in acute COVID-19. These symptoms may remain stable or fluctuate. Controversy over its definition complicates accurate diagnosis and management of the disease. The most prominent symptoms were fatigue, sleep disturbances, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Recent reports also highlight the risk of long-term sequelae in those recovering from acute COVID-19, affecting almost all organs such as the skin, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, neuropsychiatric system, and renal system. The long-term effects of COVID-19, in hospitalized and non-hospitalized individuals, across all age groups, should be a priority for future research with standardized and controlled studies.

4.Reliability and Validity Study of the Turkish Version of the Brief Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire
Furkan Bahadır Alptekin, Hüseyin Şehit Burhan, Tacettin Kuru
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2023.2022-12-2  Pages 6 - 11
Objective: Experiential avoidance is closely related to social anxiety, which is a condition characterized by intense fear in social situations, including social interactions and performing in front of others.
Material and Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 113 people. The data were obtained using a demographic form, Brief Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (B-SA-AAQ), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Internal consistency and item-total correlation were evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the factor structure. Temporal stability was assessed using the test-retest method.
Results: The Turkish adaptation of the B-SA-AAQ was found to have good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.899. CFA indicated a two-factor structure with acceptable fit indices [χ2: 22.8, degrees of freedom: 13; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA): 0.0817; RMSEA 90% confidence interval (CI) lower bond: 0.013, RMSEA 90% CI upper bond: 0.136, CFI: 0.978; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.965)]. The B-SA-AAQ and its subscales were significantly correlated with the AAQ-II and HADS (p<0.05). The results of the test-retest correlation analysis indicated temporal stability.
Conclusion: Therefore, the B-SA-AAQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring experiential avoidance and psychological flexibility in the context of social anxiety.

5.Impact of Nutritional Status on Prognosis in Non-critically ill Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
Ayşe Bahadır, Birsen Pınar Yıldız, Hasan Akın, Arzu Deniz Aksan, Cihan Aydın
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2023.2022-11-8  Pages 12 - 18
Objective: The study assessed the nutritional status of non-critically ill coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients with pneumonia using the nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS-2002) score and evaluate ıts impact on prognosis.
Material and Methods: The clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease varies widely from asymptomatic or mild upper respiratory infection to severe life-threatening pneumonia and respiratory failure. Malnutrition negatively affects impair prognosis in COVID-19 patients, but few studies have evaluated the prognostic value of nutritional risk in COVID-19. In this retrospective observational study, non-critically ill COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups considering their nutritional risk (NRS-2002 score < or ≥3) were compared to each other. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22 (Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: A total of 142 non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The patients with the nutritional risk (NRS-2002 score ≥3) were older and had higher mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) requirement rates than those without the nutritional risk. The groups did not differ regarding gender distribution, body mass index, and length of hospital stay. Compared with survivors, patients who died (n=11, 7.75%) were older and had significantly higher NRS-2002 scores and C-reactive protein levels and lower oxygen saturation and albumin level.
Conclusion: The NRS-2002 test is a practical tool that can help assess the need for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The application of the test early during the disease should be considered for risk assessment, particularly in elderly patients.

6.The Health Literacy and Health-seeking Behavior of Patients with a Chronic Disease Requiring Hospitalization
Füsun Afşar, Asibe Özkan
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2022.2022-11-13  Pages 19 - 26
Objective: Health literacy is a broad term encompassing how an individual obtains, understands, evaluates and applies correct health information for a disability-free life and to be able to maintain quality of life in sickness and in health throughout their lifetime. The sources of correct information and health literacy are important factors in being able to achieve the successful management of chronic diseases in particular. This study aimed to examine the relationship between health literacy and health-seeking behaviors and the characteristics of patients with a chronic disease requiring hospitalization.
Material and Methods: The study sample was formed of 194 patients, aged >18 years, treated in the internal medicine clinics of training and research hospital in Istanbul between 1 February and March 30, 2022. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of 3 sections. In the statistical analysis, IBM SPSS vn. 23.0 software was used.
Results: A significant negative relationship was determined between health literacy and health-seeking behaviors and age and education level of the demographic characteristics (p<0.05). Online health-seeking behavior was determined to be lower in patients with cardiac and chest diseases, and health-seeking behavior was seen to be higher on the first hospitalization (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It can be considered that studies related to the health literacy and health-seeking behaviors of patients with a chronic disease will be an important source for disease management, enabling patients to lead a disability-free life.

7.Rhinitis: A Risk Factor in Asthma Control?
Cihan Aydin, Nermin Zerman
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2023.2022-12-5  Pages 27 - 31
Objective: We studied the risk factor aspect of rhinitis in adult patients with asthma using validated assessment tools and separating the patients into groups defining rhinitis severity according to visual analog scale and asthma control status according to asthma control test (ACT) scores.
Material and Methods: Asthma is a disease that causes coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It is characterized by variable and recurrent symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction. Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a disease characterized by symptoms like sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and runny nose. Asthma is linked to AR. AR is diagnosed in 70-90% of the patients, and asthma symptoms are observed in 40-50% of the patients who are diagnosed with AR.
Results: Of 114 patients with asthma receiving treatment, 78.9% were female, and 64% had mild rhinitis symptoms. While 12.3% had diabetes mellitus (DM), 30.7% had hypertension (HT), and 14.9% had ischemic heart disease (IHD). Age, sex, DM, HT, IHD, exacerbation, and diagnosis time groups in the last year did not seem to cause a significant difference in ACT scores. The difference between the rhinitis groups in terms of ACT scores was statistically significant (F= 8.506, p=0.004, partial η2=0.087). According to this result, 8.7% of the total variance asthma control could be explained by the severity of AR.
Conclusion: Severe symptoms of rhinitis are associated with asthma control. Therefore, the management of AR should be targeted in patients whose asthma control cannot be optimized.

8.Concomitant Peripheral and Pulmonary Arterial Thromboembolism 35 Days After SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine
Ahmet Can Topçu, Abdurrahman Ekinci, Nihan Kayalar, Mehmed Yanartaş
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2022.2022-10-2  Pages 32 - 34
Although thromboembolism after ChAdOx1 vaccine has been extensively reported, this association was rarely reported after vaccination with BNT162b2. We present the case of an otherwise healthy patient who developed concomitant acute limb ischemia and extensive pulmonary embolism (PE) 35 days after the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine. Fogarty balloon thrombectomy was performed using open femoral artery exposure, and limb perfusion was restored. Reperfusion strategies were not used for treating PE due to low risk on prognostic assessment. The patient made an uneventful recovery, and she was discharged home on postoperative day 5 on warfarin, and remains symptom-free in a 3-month follow-up. Even though thromboembolic events following BNT162b2 are very rare, concomitant venous and arterial thromboembolism may occur in patients as late as 35 days after vaccination. However, the risk of thromboembolism following BNT162b2 vaccination appears significantly lower compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection itself.

9.Functional Magnetic Imaging in a Case of Congenital Mirror Movement
Nilay Taşdemir Hasanbaş, Vasfiye Kabeloğlu, Ayça Altınkaya, Murat Çabalar
doi: 10.4274/csmedj.galenos.2022.2022-1-8  Pages 35 - 38
Mirror movements are involuntary movements caused by synchronized mimicry of one side’s voluntary muscle movements by the opposite limb’s homologous muscles. We present a case of mirror movement, which is shown also with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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