Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of deterioration in nearby upper and lower segments in lumbar isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Material and Methods: A retrospective evaluation was conducted on lumbar spine MRI scans of 51 individuals diagnosed with isthmic spondylolisthesis and 55 individuals diagnosed with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Adjacent intervertebral segments were evaluated for disc space height, thickness of ligamentum flavum, spinal dural sac transverse area, disc degeneration, facet hypertrophy, and disc contour.
Results: In all patients, both the upper segment (p=0.003) and lower segment (p=0.024) showed statistically significant differences between the two types of spondylolisthesis. Additionally, at the L4-L5 level (between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae), there was a significant difference for the upper segment (p=0.005). There were statistically significant differences between the two types in the spinal dural sac transverse area in all patients for the upper segment (p=0.004), disc degeneration in all patients for the upper segment (p=0.003), disc contour in all patients for the upper segment (p=0.014), and L4-L5 level spondylolisthesis for the upper segment (p=0.021).
Conclusion: Disc space height measurements, spinal dual sac transverse area, disc degeneration, and disc contour were all worse in adjacent segments of degenerative spondylolisthesis compared with isthmic spondylolisthesis.